Main Article Content

Delman D. Maulod
Ayhan Jalal
Sami Mahdi Ahmed


This study was conducted to demonstrate the effect of supplemented thyme powder on growth performance, blood parameters and carcass traits in Japanese quail. One hundred and eighty (180) quail chicks after one week rearing were divide into four treatments which called: (T1) basal diet without thyme ; (T2) basal diet added 0.5% of thyme powder; (T3) basal diet added 0.75% of thyme powder; (T4) basal diet added 1% of thyme powder. Each treatment included 45 birds with three replicates, 15 birds in each replicate. all treatments were fed ad libitum of their own diet. The results showed that the addition of thyme powder significantly (p≤0.05) increased the values of live body weight and body weight gain. The food consumed did not differ significantly in all treatments (p≤0.05). Male eviscerated dressing percentage did not differ significantly (p≤0.05), however, there is a significant increase (p≤0.05) in females. The breast, wings, legs and backs percentage increased significantly (p≤0.05) in both of males and females of the thyme supplemented treatments. Blood serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides in males and females decreased significantly (p≤0.05) of the thyme added treatments. HDL increased significantly (p≤0.05) in both of males and females. LDL in males and females decreased significantly (p≤0.05). In conclusion, 1% of thyme powder supplemented to dietary can be used as an effective diet supplement to enhance growth performance, carcass characteristics and blood lipids in Japanese quail.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Maulod, D. D., Jalal, A., & Ahmed, S. M. (2022). Effect of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as a feed additive on the growth performance, blood parameters and carcass characteristics of Japanese quails. Tikrit Journal for Agricultural Sciences, 22(3), 44–52.
Author Biography

Delman D. Maulod, Department of Animal Resources, College of Agriculture Engineering Sciences, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq




Abd El-Latif, S. A., F. A. Ahmed, and A. M. El-Kaiaty (2002). Effect of feeding dietary thyme, black cumin, dianthus and fennel on productive and some metabolic responses of growing Japanese quail. Egypt. Poultry Science, (22), 109-125.

Abdulkarimi, R., Daneshyar, M., & Aghazadeh, A. (2011). Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) extract consumption darkens liver, lowers blood cholesterol, proportional liver and abdominal fat weights in broiler chickens. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 10(2), e20.

Al-Hlawee, M. S. B. (2020). Effect of adding thyme powder and tomato powder in diet on the carcass and meat characteristic of quail. Plant Archives, 20(1), 21-24.

Ali, A. (2014). Productive performance and immune response of broiler chicks as affected by dietary marjoram leaves powder. Egyptian Poultry Science Journal, 34(1), 57-70.

Awad, W., Ghareeb, K., & Böhm, J. (2008). Intestinal structure and function of broiler chickens on diets supplemented with a synbiotic containing Enterococcus faecium and oligosaccharides. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 9(11), 2205-2216.

Aydın, A., and Alçiçek, A., (2017). Effects of essentıal oil supplementation isolated from orange peel (Citrus sinensis L.) to broiler diets on the performance. I. International Congress of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Book of Abstracts, p.558. Konya.

El-Ghousein, S. S., & Al-Beitawi, N. A. (2009). The effect of feeding of crushed thyme (Thymus valgaris L) on growth, blood constituents, gastrointestinal tract and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. The Journal of Poultry Science, 46(2), 100-104.

CEYLAN, N., ÇİFTÇİ, İ., & İLHAN, Z. (2003). The effects of some alternative feed additives for antibiotic growth promoters on the performance and gut microflora of broiler chicks. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 27(3), 727-733.

Dahal, I. M., & Farran, M. T. (2011). Effect of dried medicinal crops on the performance and carcass flavour of broilers. International Journal of Poultry Science, 10(2), 152-156.

Dehghani, N., Afsharmanesh, M., Salarmoini, M., Ebrahimnejad, H., & Bitaraf, A. (2018). Effect of pennyroyal, savory and thyme essential oils on Japanese quail physiology. Heliyon, 4(10), e00881.‏

Hafeez, A., Männer, K., Schieder, C., & Zentek, J. (2016). Effect of supplementation of phytogenic feed additives (powdered vs. encapsulated) on performance and nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 95(3), 622-629.

Harrington D, Hall H, Wilde D, Wakeman W (2019). Application of aromatic plants and their extracts in the diets of laying hens, feed additives: Aromatic plants and herbs in animal nutrition and health. Elsevier Inc. https://doi. org/10.1016/B978-0-12-814700-9.00011-X

Hashemi, S. R., and H. Davoodi. (2010). Phytogenics as new class of feed additive in poultry industry. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 9:2295–2304.

Hashemipour, H., Kermanshahi, H., Golian, A., Raji, A., & Van Krimpen, M. M. (2013). Effect of thymol+ carvacrol by next enhance 150® on intestinal development of broiler chickens fed CMC containing diet. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 3(3), 567-576.

Hernandez, F., Madrid, J., Garcia, V., Orengo, J., & Megias, M. D. (2004). Influence of two plant extracts on broilers performance, digestibility, and digestive organ size. Poultry science, 83(2), 169-174.

Hong, J. C., Steiner, T., Aufy, A., & Lien, T. F. (2012). Effects of supplemental essential oil on growth performance, lipid metabolites and immunity, intestinal characteristics, microbiota and carcass traits in broilers. Livestock science, 144(3), 253-262.

Hoffman-Pennesi, D., & Wu, C. (2010). The effect of thymol and thyme oil feed supplementation on growth performance, serum antioxidant levels, and cecal Salmonella population in broilers. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 19(4), 432-443.

Khan, R.U.; S. Naz; Z. Nikousefat; V. Tufarelli and V. Laudadio (2012). Thymus vulgaris: alternative to antibiotics in poultry feed. World's Poultry Science Journal, 68: 401-408.

Khaksar, V.; Van Krimpen, M.; Hashemipour, H. and Pilevar, M. (2012). Effects of thyme essential oil on performance, some blood parameters and ileal microflora of Japanese quail. The Journal of Poultry Science, 49(2), 106-110.

Kalantar, M., Hosseini, S. M., Yang, L., Raza, S. H. A., Gui, L., Rezaie, M., ... & Abd El-Aziz, A. H. (2017). Performance, immune, and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens as affected by thyme and licorice or enzyme supplemented diets. Open Journal of Animal Sciences, 7(02), 105.

Tiihonen, K., Ouwehand, A. C., & Rautonen, N. (2010). Human intestinal microbiota and healthy ageing. Ageing research reviews, 9(2), 107-116.

Kulshreshtha, G., Rathgeber, B., Stratton, G., Thomas, N., Evans, F., Critchley, A., ... & Prithiviraj, B. (2014). Feed supplementation with red seaweeds, Chondrus crispus and Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii, affects performance, egg quality, and gut microbiota of layer hens. Poultry Science, 93(12), 2991-3001.

Lee, K. W., Everts, H., Kappert, H. J., Frehner, M., Losa, R., & Beynen, A. C. (2003). Effects of dietary essential oil components on growth performance, digestive enzymes and lipid metabolism in female broiler chickens. British poultry science, 44(3), 450-457.

Mansoub, N. H., & Myandoab, M. P. (2011). The effects of different levels of Thyme on performance, carcass traits, blood parameters of broilers. Annals of Biological Research, 2(4), 379-385.

Ocak, N., Erener, G., Burak Ak, F., Sungu, M., Altop, A., & Ozmen, A. (2008). Performance of broilers fed diets supplemented with dry peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) or thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) leaves as growth promoter source. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 53(4), 169.

Parlat S.S., Yildiz A.O., Cufadar Y., Olgun O., (2005). Effects of thyme essential oil supplementation on performance of Japanese quail exposed to experimental aflatoxicosis. Journal of Agricultural Faculty (Turkey) 19, 1-6.

Platel, K., & Srinivasan, K. (2004). Digestive stimulant action of spices: a myth or reality?. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 119(5), 167.

Rahimi, S., Teymori Zadeh, Z., Torshizi, K., Omidbaigi, R., & Rokni, H. (2011). Effect of the three herbal extracts on growth performance, immune system, blood factors and intestinal selected bacterial population in broiler chickens. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 13(4), 527-539.

Raya, A. H., Sherif, E., Rabie, M. H., & Bedair, H. F. (2014). Effect of dietary supplementation with dried garlic and thyme on growth performance of Japanese quail. Journal of Animal and Poultry Production, 5(2), 73-85.

Rostami, J.; M. Yosefi; S. Mahmodmoradi and K. Ebrahemi (2012). The effect of herbal plant (thyme) on performance and certain blood biochemicals of Japanese quails. Annals of Biological Research, 3(6): 3073–3076.

SAS Institute, (2005). SAS/STAT user’s guide: version 9. 8th ed. Cary: SAS Institute.

Sengul, T., Yurtseven, S., Cetin, M., KOÇYİĞİT, A., & Sogut, B. (2008). Effect of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) extracts on fattening performance, some blood parameters, oxidative stress and DNA damage in Japanese quails. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences, 17(4).

SÖĞÜT, B., & MOHAMMAD, A. M. A. (2018). Effect of Moringa, thyme, sumac powders and their mixture on growth performance in broiler chicken. Türk Tarım ve Doğa Bilimleri Dergisi, 5(3), 322-330.

Toghyani, M., Tohidi, M., Gheisari, A. A., & Tabeidian, S. A. (2010). Performance, immunity, serum biochemical and hematological parameters in broiler chicks fed dietary thyme as alternative for an antibiotic growth promoter. African journal of biotechnology, 9(40), 6819-6825.

Zeweil, H.S. (2003). Effect of spices as feed additives on the performance and egg quality of Japanese quail. In: proceedings of the 65th Scientific Conference of Polish Animal Production Society, 9-12 September.